Indian philosophy has it’s big source as Upanishadas, but the darshanas are the literature in which different aspects of Indian philosophy can be seen.

Concept of Darshana

o   Vaisheshikdarshan

o   Nyaydarshan

o   Sankhyadarshan

o   Yoga darshan

o   Purvamimasa

o   Uttar mimamsa

The final goal of life that is moksha that is liberation, was made the subject of efforts to develop distinctly Hindu philosophical texts called darshanas. These texts are on the nature of reality and to recommend paths to its apprehension and the release from bondage to karman.

Darshana includes the the knowledge of tatva. Darshanas are nothing but great Indian philosophy. It includes the great tatvadnana.  Will Dyurant defines tatvadnana as; “ A study of experience as a whole or a portion of experience in relation to the whole.”

The questions, which are discussed in this literature, have wide scope. They are not only all pervading but also the final one. For example what is Kala? what is the origin of Kala? etc.

There are six darshanas which are astik as they consider Vedas as the highest authority and 3 darshanas are nastik which means they don’t consider Vedas as the highest authority.The main idea behind this division of darshanas is ‘whether they follow vedic tradition or not’.


The vaisheshika system provides a ration explanation of the nature. This school of philosophy is best known for its metaphysics or cosmology. vaisheshikaand nyaya (our next philosophical system in order) share some common features, therefore generally kept together.

How this system establishment and development

It is also called as aulukyadarshana or kanadadarshana, because the pioneer of this philosophical system was the kanada, son of sage uluka.It is also developed and established on the footprints of nyaya system.

The main principles of this system

·      For that they have considers seven categories of the universe, those are dravya (substance), guna (quality), karma (action), samanya (universal), vishesh (particular), samavaya (inherence) and abhava (non-existence).

·      Among seven categories vishesh (particular) is the sole contribution of vaisheshika in the philosophical world.

·      Additionally they have strong causation theory.

·      According to them effect is the fresh creation or a new beginning.

·      vaisheshika explains the way in which things are produced in terms of theory of atoms, according to which the material cause of the whole world of the objects consists of the eternal atoms.

·      The similarities are found about paramanuvada between the Greek philosophy and vaisheshika philosophy.


Nyaya School of philosophy is best known for its interesting logical method and epistemology. As said before in vaisheshikaphilosophy they share some common features hence, each of the two schools recognizes the other’s conclusion.

How this system was established and developed

The system was established and developed by the sage Gautama. He was also known as Akshapada.  He and his disciples have given the logical philosophical description of all the Vedas.

The main principles of this system

·      Categories considered by Nyaya branch are sixteen in number, those are pramana (means of knowledge), prameya (objects of right knowledge), samshaya (doubt), prayojana (purpose), drushtanta (example), siddhanta (conclusive assertion), avayava (part of nyaya syllogism), tarka (judgement), nirnaya (decision), vada (discussion), jalpa (controversy), vitand (cavil), hetvabhasa (fallacy), chala (quibble), jati (analogue), nigrahasthana (point of defeat).

·      Among the means of knowledge the fourth one upamana (analogy) is addition of Nyaya.


Sankhyais one of the six classical systems of Indian philosophy. The word sankhya is derived from the root sam + √khya which mean “to count”. sankhyaphilosophy has counted 25main categories in order to understand universe, so they are called as sankhya.

How this system was established and developed

The doctrine of sankhyais attributed to sage Kapila. We can see that the doctrine of sankhya was developed during Vedas and upanishadas.

After Kapila the tradition was continued by Asuri – Pannchaikha -Ishvarakrushna – vindhyavasa – vidnyanabhikṣu.

The main principles of this system

Sankhyabelieve in 25 categories of universe such as panchadnyanendriya, panchkarmendriya, panchmahabhutani, panchtanmatra, prkruti, purush, mahatbuddhi, and ahankara.

Purusha and prakruti are basically two different principles. To recognize oneself different from the prakruti is called as Kaivalya that is moksha.

The prakrutiendowerd with three gunas are root cause of the world. They have established satkaryavada for the creation of the world. Principle of the evolution of the world told by sankhya is very much similar to the Modern theory of world’s evolution (Darwin’s theory)

They believe in three means of knowledge viz, pratyakṣa, anumāna and śabda.

Yoga darshan

The literal meaning of the Sanskrit word ‘yoga’ which is to add, to join, to unite, or to attach is derived from the √yuj. According to Panini, the term yoga can be derived from either of two roots, yujiryoge (to yoke) or yugsamadhou (to concentrate).

sankhya and Yoga are the theoretical and particle aspects of the same system. Former one is the theory and the later one is practice

How this system was established and developed

According to scholar the yoga system have arisen at later period which cannot be determined certainly. But Hindus unanimously regard Patanjali as the founder of system who lived in 2nd B.C.

It is based on the sankhyametaphysics, thus enjoys fairlystrong philosophical foundation and it builds up its own self- complete theory of self-discipline.

The main principles of this system

·      Yoga darshana believes additional element namely Ishvara on 26th order in 25 categories of sankhyadarshana. Therefore they are called as seshvarasankhya.

·      Ashtang yoga – it is eightfold path which basically act as guidelines on how to live a meaningful and purposeful life. They are yama (restraint), niyama (observance), asana (posture), pranayama (control of breath), pratyahara (withdrawal of senses), dharana (concentration), dhyana (contemplation) and samadhi (meditation)

·      They believe in three pramanas known as pratyaksha, anumana and shabda.


Word Mimamsa is derived from √maan – to worship or to oppose. The word Mimamsa means an attempt at rational enquiry or investigation of dharma.This philosophical doctrine is called as purvamimamsa because it concentrates on the previous parts of the Vedas.

The main principles of this system

·      Mimamsa relates critical investigation in to the Vedas.

·      It is also called as karma Mimamsa because it deals with action in the form of rituals and sacrifices.

·      Mimamsa system involves a great deal of discussion relating to social or folk psychology.

Uttar mimamsa

UttaraMimamsais also known as vedanta philosophy. The term vedanta literally means ‘the end of the veda’ or ‘philosophical views set forth in the ending portion of the Vedas which off course are the upanishadas. Hence vedanta is the culmination of the philosophy of the upanishadas.

How this system was established and developed

Vedanata has so many branches or schools which are established from many scholars’ views. Of these three important scholars areshankaracarya, Ramanujacarya and Madhvacarya, established their views had written commentary on prasthanatrayi and created the new schools of vedanata called advaita Vedanta, vishishthadvaita Vedanta and davit Vedanta accordingly.

Main principles of this system

·      Vedanta philosophy mainly concentrates on the discussion of the atman (inner soul) and Brahman (supreme being).

1.   According to AdvaitaVedanta, there is no difference between atman and brahman.

2.   According to vishishthadvaita, the jivatman is a part of Brahman, and hence is similar, but not identical.

3.   According to Dvaita the jivatman is totally different from Brahman. Even though he is similar to brahman, he is not identical.

·      According to Vedanta, the world as such has no real existence at all, but is only an illusory imagination which lasts till the moment when true knowledge is acquired. Hence Concept of mukti (liberation) is highlighted.

·      Adnyana (ignorance) constitutes the substance of the illusion; for there is nothing else that can be regarded as constituting its substance.