Yoga Sutras of Patanjali – Samadhi pada and Sadhana pada

The original verses of Yoga sutra describes the procedure of every step of yoga. The article is about how and why to attain samadhi through yoga sutra mantra.

 

•       Chapter I – Awareness (Samadhi Pada)

•       Chapter II – Practice (Sadhana Pada)

•       References

Chapter I – Awareness (samadhi)

अथ योगानुशासनम् ॥१॥

atha yoga anushasanam ||1||

An introduction to the theory and practice of yoga

योगश्चित्तवृत्तिनिरोधः ॥२॥

yogash chitta vritti nirodhah ||2||

All misconceptions and mind modifications cease to exist when the mind penetrates into the state of yoga.

तदा द्रष्टुः स्वरूपेऽवस्थानम् ॥३॥

tada drashtuh svarupe ‘vasthanam ||3||

Unto our own essential nature rests our true self.

वृत्ति सारूप्यमितरत्र ॥४॥

vritti sarupyam itaratra ||4||

In absence of true self, the mind modification alters our genuine perceptions.

वृत्तयः पञ्चतय्यः क्लिष्टाक्लिष्टाः ॥५॥

vrittayah panchatayyah klishtaklishtah ||5||

In total, there are five misconceptions or mind modifications afflicting our perception.

प्रमाण विपर्यय विकल्प निद्रा स्मृतयः ॥६॥

pramana viparyaya vikalpa nidra smritayah ||6||

These are insight or correct knowledge, error or incorrect knowledge, imaginations, deep sleep, memory or recollections.

प्रत्यक्षानुमानागमाः प्रमाणानि ॥७॥

pratyaksha anumana agamah pramanani ||7||

Direct perception, inference, conclusion, learning and inspiration gathered from reliable resources help in gaining the correct insight.

विपर्ययो मिथ्याज्ञानमतद्रूप प्रतिष्ठम् ॥८॥

viparyayo mithya jnanam atadrupa pratishtham ||8||

False mental construct results from incorrect knowledge and never corresponds to the reality.

शब्दज्ञानानुपाती वस्तुशून्यो विकल्पः ॥९॥

shabda jnana anupati vastu shunyo vikalpah ||9||

Knowledge and thoughts which are not in tandem with the real world give rise to imaginations.

अभावप्रत्ययालम्बना तमोवृत्तिर्निद्र ॥१०॥

abhava pratyaya alambana tamo vrittir nidra ||10||

Sleep is a mind modification in which all impressions and mental content are absolutely absent.

अनुभूतविषयासंप्रमोषः स्मृतिः ॥११॥

anu bhuta vishaya asanpramoshah smritih ||11||

Memory retains and recollects the past experiences and perceptions felt by the senses.

अभ्यासवैराग्याभ्यां तन्निरोधः ॥१२॥

abhyasa vairagya abhyam tan nirodhah ||12||

Concentration and composure help one achieve the state of yoga and not attachment.

तत्र स्थितौ यत्नोऽभ्यासः ॥१३॥

tatra sthitau yatno ‘bhyasah ||13||

Concentration is achieved thorough one’s own efforts and it helps in adhering to the practice of yoga.

स तु दीर्घकाल नैरन्तर्य सत्कारादरासेवितो दृढभूमिः ॥१४॥

sa tu dirghakala nairantarya satkara adara asevito dridhabhumih ||14||

Dedicated and uninterrupted practice gradually helps in achieving success.

दृष्टानुश्रविकविषयवितृष्णस्य वशीकारसंज्णा वैराग्यम् ॥१५॥

drishta anushravika vishaya vitrishnasya vashikara sanjna vairagyam ||15||

Total composure brings consciousness in which desires for sensory objects are eliminated.

तत्परं पुरुषख्यातेः गुणवैतृष्ण्यम् ॥१६॥

tatparam purusha khyateh guna vaitrishnyam ||16||

Composure helps in experiencing the true self in which all basic elements or gunas lose power over us.

वितर्कविचारानन्दास्मितारुपानुगमात्संप्रज्ञातः ॥१७॥

vitarka vichara ananda asmita rupa anugamat sanprajnatah ||17||

Absolute knowledge and awareness is gradually achieved by deviation, subtle perception, bliss, experiencing oneness i.e. sense of individuality.

विरामप्रत्ययाभ्यासपूर्वः संस्कारशेषोऽन्यः ॥१८॥

virama pratyaya abhyasa purvah sanskara shesho ‘nyah ||18||

The other absolute state is achieved thorough practice when all perceptions or content of mind get eliminated and only non-manifests impression continues to persist.

भवप्रत्ययो विदेहप्रकृतिलयानम् ॥१९॥

bhava pratyayo videha prakriti layanam ||19||

The absolute state could be inherent in some, while others achieve it by abdicating bodily senses and reunion with nature.

श्रद्धावीर्यस्मृति समाधिप्रज्ञापूर्वक इतरेषाम् ॥२०॥

shraddha virya smriti samadhi prajna purvaka itaresham ||20||

Many others also attain this through faith, determination, memory and intelligence derived from the absolute knowledge.

तीव्रसंवेगानामासन्नः ॥२१॥

tivra sanveganam asannah ||21||

The intense desire and practice help achieve the goal soon.

मृदुमध्याधिमात्रत्वात्ततोऽपि विशेषः ॥२२॥

mridu madhya adhimatratvat tato’pi visheshah ||22||

The practice can be mild, moderate or intense.

ईश्वरप्रणिधानाद्वा ॥२३॥

ishvara pranidhanad va ||23||

By thinking that one is submitting to God, the goal is achieved.

क्लेश कर्म विपाकाशयैःपरामृष्टः पुरुषविशेष ईश्वरः ॥२४॥

klesha karma vipaka ashayaih aparamrishtah purusha vishesha ishvarah ||24||

God is never affected by obstacles, karmas, and accumulation of desires.

तत्र निरतिशयं सर्वज्ञबीजम् ॥२५॥

tatra niratishayam sarvajna bijam ||25||

In God, one may find the absolute knowledge.

तस्य वाचकः प्रणवः ॥२७॥

sa esha purvesham api guruh kalena anavachchhedat ||26||

God is the teacher of all teachers, he is unaffected by time.

तज्जपः तदर्थभावनम् ॥२८॥

tasya vachakah pranavah ||27||

God manifests in the mantra and symbol of Om.

ततः प्रत्यक्चेतनाधिगमोऽप्यन्तरायाभवश्च ॥२९॥

taj japah tad artha bhavanam ||28||

True contemplation is achieved when the Om mantra is chanted by understanding it true meaning.

ततः प्रत्यक्चेतनाधिगमोऽप्यन्तरायाभवश्च ॥२९॥

tatah pratyak chetana adhigamo ‘py antaraya abhavash cha ||29||

The process turns the awareness inwards; reveals the immutable self; removes all obstacles.

व्याधि स्त्यान संशय प्रमादालस्याविरति भ्रान्तिदर्शनालब्धभूमिकत्वानवस्थितत्वानि चित्तविक्षेपाः ते अन्तरायाः ॥३०॥

vyadhi styana sanshaya pramada alasya avirati bhrantidarshana alabdha bhumikatva anavasthitatvani chitta vikshepah te antarayah ||30||

The mind obstacles removed are diseases, inertia, doubt, procrastination, sloth, desire for pleasure, blindness, lack of concentration, and irresoluteness.

दुःखदौर्मनस्याङ्गमेजयत्वश्वासप्रश्वासाः विक्षेप सहभुवः ॥३१॥

duhkha daurmanasya angamejayatva shvasaprashvasah vikshepa sahabhuvah ||31||

Sufferings, depression, trembling of the body, agitated breathing, are symptoms of distracted state of mind.

तत्प्रतिषेधार्थमेकतत्त्वाभ्यासः ॥३२॥

tat pratishedha artham eka tattva abhyasah ||32||

With assiduous practice and concentration on one point, all obstacles are removed.

मैत्री करुणा मुदितोपेक्षाणांसुखदुःख पुण्यापुण्यविषयाणां भावनातः चित्तप्रसादनम् ॥३३॥

maitri karuna mudito pekshanam sukha duhkha punya apunya vishayanam bhavanatah chitta prasadanam ||33||

In all states of happiness, pain, success, being unfortunate – the mind should be kept detached and harmonized thorough love, friendliness, conviviality, imperturbability, etc.

प्रच्छर्दनविधारणाभ्यां वा प्राणस्य ॥३४॥

prachchhardana vidharana abhyam va pranasya ||34||

The goal can be achieved thorough Pranayama, a breathing exercise that holds energy when the breath is hold before exhaling.

विषयवती वा प्रवृत्तिरुत्पन्ना मनसः स्थिति निबन्धिनी ॥३५॥

vishayavati va pravritti rutpanna manasah sthiti nibandhini ||35||

Contemplating on sense experience brings tranquillity, consolidation and mental stability.

विशोका वा ज्योतिष्मती ॥३६॥

vishoka va jyotishmati ||36||

The tranquillity can also be achieved by contemplating on inner side which is above suffering and sorrow.

वीतराग विषयम् वा चित्तम् ॥३७॥

vitaraga vishayam va chittam ||37||

It can be achieved through focus on the hearth which is mutable in human beings and is filled with transcend passion.

स्वप्ननिद्रा ज्ञानालम्बनम् वा ॥३८॥

svapna nidra jnana alambanam va ||38||

The tranquillity can also be gained by contemplating on the knowledge derived from the content of nocturnal dream.

यथाभिमतध्यानाद्वा ॥३९॥

yatha abhimata dhyanad va ||39||

It can either be achieved through focusing on a pleasant experience, contemplating on love.

परमाणु परममहत्त्वान्तोऽस्य वशीकारः ॥४०॥

paramanu parama mahattva anto ‘sya vashikarah ||40||

In the process, a yogi attains mastery over everything – from smallest atom to the whole universe.

क्षीणवृत्तेरभिजातस्येव मणेर्ग्रहीतृग्रहणग्राह्येषु तत्स्थतदञ्जनता समापत्तिः ॥४१॥

kshina vritter abhijatasy eva maner grahitri grahana grahyeshu tatstha tadanjanata samapattih ||41||

The knower, known and the knowing process – the perceiver and the perceived become one – when the mind modifications get subdued, the mind (mutable in human beings) becomes as clear as a diamond.

तत्र शब्दार्थज्ञानविकल्पैः संकीर्णा सवितर्का समापत्तिः ॥४२॥

tatra shabdartha jnana vikalpaih sankirna savitarka samapattih ||42||

Sound, sense perception of the sound and the knowledge of the real cause behind it – the conjunction of these three brings the state of real awareness of the sound (savitarka samapatti).

स्मृतिपरिशुद्धौ स्वरूपशून्येवार्थमात्रनिर्भासा निर्वितर्का ॥४३॥

smriti parishuddhau svarupa shunyeva arthamatra nirbhasa nirvitarka ||43||

One’s true nature is perceived after purging of the old impressions of sound and sense perception of the sound, the contemplated object then emanates light, this is called nirvitarka samapatti.

एतयैव सविचारा निर्विचारा च सूक्ष्मविषय व्याख्याता ॥४४॥

etayaiva savichara nirvichara cha sukshma vishaya vyakhyata ||44||

When the concentrated object is of subtle nature – the awareness with subtle perception is called savichraara samapatti, and the awareness without subtle perception is called nirvichara samapatti.

सूक्ष्मविषयत्वम्चालिण्ग पर्यवसानम् ॥४५॥

sukshma vishayatvam cha alinga paryavasanam ||45||

An object can be indefinably subtle and the subtly perceived objects of awareness lie in the nature’s realm.

ता एव सबीजस्समाधिः ॥४६॥

ta eva sabijas samadhih ||46||

All the above sates of consciousness or samadhis are seeds (bijas) samadhis.

निर्विचारवैशारद्येऽध्यात्मप्रसादः ॥४७॥

nirvichara vaisharadye ‘dhyatma prasadah ||47||

The state of absolute light or clarity is achieved after gaining awareness without subtle perception.

ऋतंभरा तत्र प्रज्ञा ॥४८॥

ritanbhara tatra prajna ||48||

The state of pure consciousness satiated with truth is achieved after nirvichara samapatti.

श्रुतानुमानप्रज्ञाभ्यामन्यविषया विशेषार्थत्वात् ॥४९॥

shruta anumana prajna abhyam anya vishaya vishesha arthatvat ||49||

Pure consciousness differs from the one gained by something that is received or heard and followed by logical judgement as these two still have an object to concentrate on.

तज्जस्संस्कारोऽन्यसंस्कार प्रतिबन्धी ॥५०॥

tajjas sanskaro ‘nya sanskara pratibandhi ||50||

The knowledge based on something that is received or followed is not pure consciousness but latent impressions (samskaras).

तस्यापि निरोधे सर्वनिरोधान्निर्बीजः समाधिः ॥५१॥

tasyapi nirodhe sarva nirodhan nirbijah samadhih ||51||

After the latent impressions or samskaras have become restful Nirbiija Samadhi or the one attained without seed, it is pure consciousness.

Chapter II – Practice (Sadhana Pada)

तपः स्वाध्यायेश्वरप्रणिधानानि क्रियायोगः ॥१॥

tapah svadhyay eshvarapranidhanani kriya yogah ||1||

Practice that involves self purification, self analysis, vigilance and rigor towards self, surrender to God, no attachment to any outcome, is called Kriya Yoga.

समाधिभावनार्थः क्लेश तनूकरणार्थश्च ॥२॥

samadhi bhavana arthah klesha tanu karana arthash cha ||2||

If the goal of achieving awareness is intact, the obstacles will get disappear and this will ultimately lead you towards your goal.

अविद्यास्मितारागद्वेषाभिनिवेशः क्लेशाः ॥३॥

avidya asmita raga dvesha abhiniveshah kleshah ||3||

Ignorance and lack of insight, identification with the mutable (ego), belief in any passion (happiness and unhappiness), anxiety related to life and death – these are all obstacles in the path of the goal.

अविद्या क्षेत्रमुत्तरेषाम् प्रसुप्ततनुविच्छिन्नोदाराणाम् ॥४॥

avidya kshetram uttaresham prasupta tanu vichchhinn odaranam ||4||

Ignorance or lack of insight makes things appear latent, incipient, overwhelming and endless.

अनित्याशुचिदुःखानात्मसु नित्यशुचिसुखात्मख्यातिरविद्या ॥५॥

anitya ashuchi duhkha anatmasu nitya shuchi sukha atmakhyatir avidya ||5||

Ignorance and lack of insight tends to mix pure with impure, mutable with immutable, joys with sufferings, non-self with the Self (atman).

दृग्दर्शनशक्त्योरेकात्मतैवास्मिता ॥६॥

drig darshana shaktyor ekatmata iva asmita ||6||

Living with two manifestations i.e. distinguishing the object of experience with the experience, occurs owing to ego – where one confuses immutable with the mutable.

सुखानुशयी रागः ॥७॥

sukha anushayi ragah ||7||

A false perception that determines that happiness or pleasure is dependent on external circumstances of passion and desire.

दुःखानुशयी द्वेषः ॥८॥

duhkha anushayi dveshah ||8||

A false perception that suffering and pain are dependent on external circumstances including anger and desire (both are ragas).

स्वरस्वाहि विदुषोऽपि समारूढोऽभिनिवेशः ॥९॥

svarasvahi vidusho ‘pi samarudho ‘bhiniveshah ||9||

Anxiety and strong will to live can dominate the existence of even of the learned ones.

ते प्रतिप्रसवहेयाः सूक्ष्माः ॥१०॥

te pratiprasava heyah sukshmah ||10||

The obstacle can be nipped in the bud, absorbed in its own cause in a subtle manner.

ध्यान हेयाः तद्वृत्तयः ॥११॥

dhyana heyah tad vrittayah ||11||

Meditation reduces the manifestation of mental obstacles that arise from human mutability.

क्लेशमूलः कर्माशयो दृष्टादृष्टजन्मवेदनीयः ॥१२॥

klesha mulah karma ashayo drishta adrishta janma vedaniyah ||12||

Obstacles, visible or invisible, lead to actions and karmas which result in incarnations.

सति मूले तद्विपाको जात्यायुर्भोगाः ॥१३॥

sati mule tad vipako jaty ayur bhogah ||13||

As long as the obstacles are there these will be manifested as life, longevity, and the way one achieves happiness.

ते ह्लाद परितापफलाः पुण्यापुण्यहेतुत्वात् ॥१४॥

te hlada paritapa phalah punya apunya hetutvat ||14||

The outcome or the fruits depend on the merit and demerit of the actions.

परिणाम ताप संस्कार दुःखैः गुणवृत्तिविरोधाच्च दुःखमेव सर्वं विवेकिनः ॥१५॥

parinama tapa sanskara duhkhaih guna vritti virodhachcha duhkham eva sarvam vivekinah ||15||

Those who differentiate owning to desires, impressions, conflict, and misconceptions caused by mind modifications are bound to suffer.

हेयं दुःखमनागतम् ॥१६॥

heyam duhkham anagatam ||16||

However, future sufferings can be averted.

द्रष्टृदृश्ययोः संयोगो हेयहेतुः ॥१७॥

drashtri drishyayoh sanyogo heyahetuh ||17||

Identification of the true self i.e. seer with the mutable (seen) is the root cause of every suffering.

प्रकाशक्रियास्थितिशीलं भूतेन्द्रियात्मकं भोगापवर्गार्थं दृश्यम् ॥१८॥

prakasha kriya sthiti shilam bhutendriya atmakam bhoga apavarga artham drishyam ||18||

The objects seen in the physical world can be marked by sattva or purity, rajas or unrest, tamas or inertia; they are physical; they may lead to short term pleasure or long term salvation.

विशेषाविशेषलिङ्गमात्रालिङ्गानि गुणपर्वाणि ॥१९॥

vishesha avishesha linga matra alingani gunaparvani ||19||

Physical objects demonstrate the states: ascertainable; broad; emblematic; beyond symbols.

द्रष्टा दृशिमात्रः शुद्धोऽपि प्रत्ययानुपश्यः ॥२०॥

drashta drishimatrah shuddho ‘pi pratyaya anupashyah ||20||

The awareness or consciousness or mutable is true self or the seer; though it is seen through accurate perception.

तदर्थ एव दृश्यस्यात्मा ॥२१॥

tadartha eva drishyasya atma ||21||

Physical object or nature can be perceived by true self as pure awareness.

कृतार्थं प्रतिनष्टंप्यनष्टं तदन्य साधारणत्वात् ॥२२॥

kritartham pratinashtam apy anashtam tadanya sadharanatvat ||22||

Once the purpose is fulfilled the object disappears, but not for those with ordinary cognition.

स्वस्वामिशक्त्योः स्वरूपोप्लब्धिहेतुः संयोगः ॥२३॥

svasvami shaktyoh svarup oplabdhi hetuh sanyogah ||23||

The connection between the mutable and the extant is for one to gain mastery in one’s own nature.

तस्य हेतुरविद्या ॥२४॥

tasya hetur avidya ||24||

The connection or identification with the mutable occurs due to lack of insight.

तदभाबात्संयोगाभावो हानं तद्दृशेः कैवल्यम् ॥२५॥

tad abhabat sanyoga abhavo hanam taddrisheh kaivalyam ||25||

Once the lack of insight and the false identification disappears the liberation is achieved.

विवेकख्यातिरविप्लवा हानोपायः ॥२६॥

viveka khyatir aviplava hanopayah ||26||

The uninterrupted insight and the sense to discriminate through pure knowledge is the ultimate goal.

तस्य सप्तधा प्रान्तभूमिः प्रज्ञ ॥२७॥

tasya saptadha pranta bhumih prajna ||27||

The path of awareness, the path of spiritual insight, has seven steps.

योगाङ्गानुष्ठानादशुद्धिक्षये ज्ञानदीप्तिराविवेकख्यातेः ॥२८॥

yoga anga anushthanad ashuddhi kshaye jnana diptir aviveka khyateh ||28||

Yoga practice eliminates impurity, culminates distinction into knowledge.

यम नियमासन प्राणायाम प्रत्याहार धारणा ध्यान समाधयोऽष्टावङ्गानि ॥२९॥

yama niyama asana pranayama pratyahara dharana dhyana samadhayo ‘shtavangani ||29||

There are in total eight limbs of Yoga practice, moral code of conduct (yamas), inner disciplines (niyamas), harmony with the body (yoga), regulation of breath (pranayama), detachment with sense experience (pratyahara), concentration (dharana), contemplation (dhyana), and ecstasy (samadhi).

अहिंसासत्यास्तेय ब्रह्मचर्यापरिग्रहाः यमाः ॥३०॥

ahinsa satya asteya brahmacharya aparigrahah yamah ||30||

The five moral codes of conducts are: non-violence (ahimsa), truthfulness (satya), honesty/non-stealing (astetya), non-covetousness (aparigraha), and continence (brahmacharya).

जातिदेशकालसमयानवच्छिन्नाः सार्वभौमामहाव्रतम् ॥३१॥

jati desha kala samaya anavachchhinnah sarvabhauma mahavratam ||31||

These yamas are valid without craving for social status, place/location, time or circumstances.

शौच संतोष तपः स्वाध्यायेश्वरप्रणिधानानि नियमाः ॥३२॥

shaucha santosha tapah svadhyay eshvarapranidhanani niyamah ||32||

The five inner disciplines are: cleanliness, contentment, austerity, study, fate acceptance.

वितर्कबाधने प्रतिप्रक्षभावनम् ॥३३॥

vitarka badhane pratipraksha bhavanam ||33||

The disturbance arising out of sounds/words should be overcome by counteracting them.

वितर्का हिंसादयः कृतकारितानुमोदिता लोभक्रोधमोहापूर्वका मृदुमध्य अधिमात्रा दुःखाज्ञानानन्तफला इति प्रतिप्रक्षभावनम् ॥३४॥

vitarka hinsadayah krita karita anumodita lobha krodha moha apurvaka mridu madhya adhimatra duhkha ajnana ananta phala iti pratipraksha bhavanam ||34||

The violent thoughts are counteracted by thinking their opposite. These thoughts are greed, anger, and delusion. They lead to pain and sufferings with mild, medium and intense levels.

अहिंसाप्रतिष्ठायं तत्सन्निधौ वैरत्याघः ॥३५॥

ahinsa pratishthayam tat sannidhau vairatyaghah ||35||

The durable non-violence once established, ceases all hostility and enmity from the environs.

सत्यप्रतिष्थायं क्रियाफलाश्रयत्वम् ॥३६॥

satya pratishthayam kriya phala ashrayatvam ||36||

When everything is based on truthfulness and the truth is permanently established, the actions are accomplished without effort.

अस्तेयप्रतिष्ठायां सर्वरत्नोपस्थानम् ॥३७॥

asteya pratishthayam sarvaratn opasthanam ||37||

When honesty/non stealing is firmly established, all riches and prosperity are gained.

ब्रह्मचर्य प्रतिष्ठायां वीर्यलाभः ॥३८॥

brahma charya pratishthayam virya labhah ||38||

Performing each action with continence and higher ideal engenders tremendous vigour.

अपरिग्रहस्थैर्ये जन्मकथंता संबोधः ॥३९॥

aparigraha sthairye janma kathanta sanbodhah ||39||

When non-covetousness is established, knowledge of the goal of life is gained.

शौचात् स्वाङ्गजुगुप्सा परैरसंसर्गः ॥४०॥

shauchat svanga jugupsa parairasansargah ||40||

Purity engenders non attachment towards physicality and its connection with the external objects.

सत्त्वशुद्धिः सौमनस्यैकाग्र्येन्द्रियजयात्मदर्शन योग्यत्वानि च ॥४१॥

sattva shuddhih saumanasya ikagry endriyajaya atmadarshana yogyatvani cha ||41||

Mental clarity, cheerfulness, concentration power, controlled sense achieved through purity lead to self-realisation.

संतोषातनुत्तमस्सुखलाभः ॥४२॥

santoshat anuttamas sukhalabhah ||42||

Infinite happiness, joy, mental comfort, and satisfaction are achieved by exercising contentment.

कायेन्द्रियसिद्धिरशुद्धिक्षयात् तपसः ॥४३॥

kayendriya siddhir ashuddhi kshayat tapasah ||43||

Austerities, i.e. self discipline remove mental impurities and help sense organs perceive higher powers.

स्वाध्यायादिष्टदेवता संप्रयोगः ॥४४॥

svadhyayad ishta devata sanprayogah ||44||

Self-study or study of God, helps achieving the union with the self or the recited God. This helps in achieving the desired goal.

समाधि सिद्धिःीश्वरप्रणिधानात् ॥४५॥

samadhi siddhih ishvarapranidhanat ||45||

Accepting one’s fate and surrendering completely unto God, complete awareness is achieved.

स्थिरसुखमासनम् ॥४६॥

sthira sukham asanam ||46||

Harmony is achieved when the postures are performed with strength and in relaxed and harmonized manner.

प्रयत्नशैथिल्यानन्तसमापत्तिभ्याम् ॥४७॥

prayatna shaithilya ananta samapatti bhyam ||47||

Deep contemplation at unlimited space helps in loosening tension while performing various postures.

ततो द्वङ्द्वानभिघातः ॥४८॥

tato dvandva an abhighatah ||48||

Victory over the dichotomy of life i.e. pain and pleasure is thus achieved.

तस्मिन् सति श्वासप्रश्वास्योर्गतिविच्छेदः प्राणायामः ॥४९॥

tasmin sati shvasa prashvasyor gati vichchhedah pranayamah ||49||

Next comes controlling the breath, it comes with control over inhaling, exhaling and hiatuses.

बाह्याभ्यन्तरस्थम्भ वृत्तिः देशकालसन्ख्याभिः परिदृष्टो दीर्घसूक्ष्मः ॥५०॥

bahya abhyantara sthambha vrittih desha kala sankhyabhih paridrishto dirgha sukshmah ||50||

In the three stages of control, i.e. inhaling, exhaling and retaining, the breath, technique, time and number must be regulated over an extensive period.

बाह्याभ्यन्तर विषयाक्षेपी चतुर्थः ॥५१॥

bahya abhyantara vishaya akshepi chaturthah ||51||

The forth control in Pranayama method finally transcends the retention of breath after inhaling and exhaling.

ततः क्षीयते प्रकाशावरणम् ॥५२॥

tatah kshiyate prakasha avaranam ||52||

The veil shielding the inner light thus disappears.

धारणासु च योग्यता मनसः ॥५३॥

dharanasu cha yogyata manasah ||53||

The gross mind gets ready for harmony with thoughts and becomes fit for concentration.

स्वविषयासंप्रयोगे चित्तस्य स्वरूपानुकारैवेन्द्रियाणां प्रत्याहारः ॥५४॥

svavishaya asanprayoge chittasya svarupanukara iv endriyanam pratyaharah ||54||

When the sense is withdrawn from the external objects, the mutable or higher mind becomes one with its true nature.

ततः परमावश्यता इन्द्रियाणाम् ॥५५॥

tatah parama vashyata indriyanam ||55||

Thus the supreme mastery over the senses is gained by withdrawing all sense experience.

References
 (Others):
Yoga Sutras of Patanjali – by Jayaram V
Yoga Aphorisms of Patanjali – English version by Octavian Sarbatoare
http://www.hinduwebsite.com/hinduism/essays/patanjali.asp
http://www.ashtangayoga.info/source-texts/yoga-sutra-patanjali/chapter-1/
Yoga Sutras of Patanjali – by Jayaram V
Yoga Aphorisms of Patanjali – English version by Octavian Sarbatoare
http://www.hinduwebsite.com/hinduism/essays/patanjali.asp
http://www.ashtangayoga.info/source-texts/yoga-sutra-patanjali/chapter-1/

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