Gems of Subhashitah- Part 3

Gems of Subhashitah- Part 3

Leadership

1.      यथा ह्यनुदका नद्यो यथावाप्यतृणं वनम्।

अगोपाला यथा गावस्तथा राष्ट्रमराजकम्॥

 

Yatha hyanudaka nadyo yathavapyatrunam vanam |

Agopala yatha gavastatha rashtramarajakam ||

A state without a king is just like a river without water, a forest without grass and cows without cowherd.

2.      किं तस्य तपसा राज्ञः किं च तस्याध्वरैरपि।

सुपालितप्रजो यः स्यात् सर्वधर्मविदेव सः॥

kim tasya tapasa rajnah kim cha tasyadhvarairapi|

supalitaprajo yah syat sarvadharmavideva sah||

What is the need for penance or sacrifice for a king who protects his subjects well and knows fully well all his responsibilities?

Learned people

1.      य: पठति लिखति पश्यति परिपृच्छति पण्डितानुपासयति॥

तस्य दिवाकरकिरणैर्नलिनीदलमिव विकास्यते बुद्धी:॥

Yah pathati likhati pashyati paripruchhti panditanupasyti||

Tasya divakarkirnairnalinidalmiv vikasyate budhdhi||

The one who reads, writes, observes and worships learned people, gets his intellect developed just as the lotus blooms with the association of sunrays.

2.      माता शत्रु: पिता वैरी, येन बालो न पाठित:।

न शोभते सभामध्ये हंसमध्ये बको यथा॥

Mata shatruh pita vairi, yen balo na pathith|

Na shobhate sabhamadhye hansamadhye bako yatha||

The mother and the father who don’t teach their child are deemed to be his enemy. (They keep their child away from knowledge) Such a child doesn’t fit in the group of learned people as a heron doesn’t fit in a crowd of swans.

3.      न हृष्यत्यात्मसंमाने नावमानेन तप्यते।

गाङ्गो ह्रद इवाक्षोभ्यो यः स पण्डित उच्यते॥

Na hrushyantyatmasammane navamanena tapyate|

Gango hruda ivakshobhyo yah sa pandita uchyate||

The one who does not feel elated with praise or good treatment from others or gets angry even when insulted; but on the other hand remains calm just like a deep pool of river Ganga, he is called wise.

4.      विद्वत्वं च नृपत्वं च नैव तुल्यं कदाचन।

स्वदेशे पूज्यते राजा विद्वान् सर्वत्र पूज्यते॥

Vidvatvam ch nrupatvam ch naiv tulyam kadachan|

Swadeshe pujyate raja vidvan sarvatra pujyate||

A learned man can never be compared with a king. A king is worshipped (respected by others) only in his own kingdom whereas a learned person is revered everywhere.

5.      विद्वत्त्वं च नृपत्वं च नैव तुल्यं कदचन।

स्वदेशे पूज्यते राजा विद्वान् सर्वत्र पूज्यते॥

Vidvadvam cha nrupatvam cha naiva tulyam kadachana|

Svadeshe pujyate raja vidvan sarvatra pujyate||

Scholarliness & kingship are not equivalent at all. A king is honored in his own state; whereas a learned person is honored everywhere.

Life

1.      अनन्ताः पितरो यान्ति यान्त्यनन्ताश्च मातरः।

इह संसारिणां पुंसां वनपादपपर्णवत्॥

Anantaha pitaro yanti yantyanantashcha matarah|

Iha sansarinam punsamvanapadapaparnavat||

In this world, a man gets many parents over different births; just as leaves of the trees in the forest. (The leaves grow on trees and then fall when they become dry.)

2.      आयुषः क्षण एकोऽपि सर्वरत्नैर्न लभ्यते।

नीयते तद्वृथा येन प्रमादी सुमहानसौ॥

aayushah kshana ekopisarvaratnairna labhyate|

niyate tadvrutha yena pramadi sumahanasau||

3.      असारे खलु संसारे सारं श्वशुरमन्दिरम्।

         हरो हिमालये शेते हरिः शेते महोदधौ॥

Asare khalu samsare saram shvashuramandiram|

Haro himalaye shete harihi shete mahodadhau||

In this false world, the only place that offers a real haven is the home of one’s father-in-law. Even the Gods Shankar and Vishnu repose on mountain Himalaya and in the sea respectively.

4.      परिवर्तिनि संसारे मृतः को वा न जायते?।

स जातो येन जतेन याति वंशः समुन्नतिम्॥

Parivartini samsare mrutah ko va na jayate|

Sa jato yena jatena yati vamshah samunnatim||

In this ever changing world who is the person who doesn’t die? The one due to whom the race gets honored is the only one born.

Nature

1.      पश्यात्र नलिनीपत्रे बलाका परिदृश्यते।

हरिन्मणिमये पात्रे शुक्तिकेव प्रतिष्ठिता॥

Pashyatra nalinipatre balaka paridrushyate|

Harinmanimaye patre shuktikeva pratishthita||

Behold a female stork on a lotus-leaf. She looks like a shell on the surface of an emerald pot.

2.      तानि तानि कमलानि तज्जलं

तानि षट्पदकुलानि ते खगाः।

सर्वमेकसमये तु विच्युतं

पङ्कशेषमचिरादभूत्सरः॥

Tani tani kamalani tajjalam 

tani shatpadakulani te khagah|

Sarvamekasamaye tu vichyutam 

pankasheshamachiratbhutsarah||

(Due to heat) all those lotuses, that water, flocks of birds & beetles have perished at a time & merely mud has remained in the lake.

3.      लिम्पतीव तमोऽङ्गानि वर्षतीवाञ्जनं नभः।

असत्पुरुषसेवेव दृष्टिर्निष्फलतां गता॥

Limpativa tamongani varshati vanjanam nabhah|

Asatpurushaseveva drushtitnishfalatam gata||

It seems that darkness has covered all organs akin to the sky showering soot. The sense of Sight does not function; similarly the service offered to wicked people remains useless.

Philosophy

1.      भोगो न भुक्ता वयमेव भुक्तास्तपो न तप्तं वयमेव तप्ताः।

कालो न यातो वयमेव यातास्तृष्णा न जीर्णा वयमेव जीर्णाः॥

Bhogo na bhukta vayameva bhuktastapo na taptam vayameva taptah |

Kalo na yato vayameva yatastrushna na jirna vayameva jirna ||

We have not enjoyed pleasures, but we have been preyed upon (by the destructive influence of time) we have not gone undergone austerities, but we have been harassed (by worldly cares); time has not lapsed, but the lease of our life; our greed has not decayed but we have.

2.      वयं येभ्यो जातिश्चिरपरिगता एव खलु ते ।

समं ये संवृद्धाः स्मृतिविषयतां ते अपि गमिताः ।

इदानीमेते स्मः प्रतिदिवसमासन्नपतना ।

गतास्तुल्यावस्थां सिकतिलनदीतीरतरुभिः ॥

vayam yebhyo jatishciraparigata eva khalu te |

samam ye samvruddhah smrutivishayatam te api gamitah |

idanimete smah pratidivasamasannapatana |

gatastulyavastham sikatilanaditiratarubhih ||

Those from whom we were born have long since passed away; those too, with whom we grew up, have been consigned to the region of memory ; now here we are, with our fall approaching nearer and nearer day by day, reduced to the same state as that of trees (growing) on the bank of a sandy river.

3.      कालः पचति भूतानि कालः संहरते प्रजाः ।

कालः सुप्तेषु जागर्ति कालो हि दुरतिक्रमः ॥

kalah pacati bhutani kalah samharate prajah |

kalah supteshu jagarti kalo hi duratikramah ||

Time makes everyone mature, it also destroys people. Even when people are in slumber, time is always awake; it is not possible to bypass time.

4.      वयं येभ्यो जातिश्चिरपरिगता एव खलु ते ।

समं ये संवृद्धाः स्मृतिविषयतां ते अपि गमिताः ।

इदानीमेते स्मः प्रतिदिवसमासन्नपतना ।

गतास्तुल्यावस्थां सिकतिलनदीतीरतरुभिः ॥

vayam yebhyo jatishciraparigata eva khalu te |

samam ye samvruddhah smrutivishayatam te api gamitah |

idanimete smah pratidivasamasannapatana |

gatastulyavastham sikatilanaditiratarubhih ||

Those from whom we were born have long since passed away; those too, with whom we grew up, have been consigned to the region of memory ; now here we are, with our fall approaching nearer and nearer day by day, reduced to the same state as that of trees (growing) on the bank of a sandy river.

5.      बीजात्कारणतः कार्यमङ्कुरः किल जायते ।

न बीजमपि यत्रास्ति तत्र स्यादङ्कुरः कुतः ॥

bijatkaranatah karyamankurah kila jayate |

na bijamapi yatrasti tatra syadankurah kutah ||

There is a cause behind every action. If there is no cause there would not be any effect. This fact is explained with the example of a seed and shoot. As a shoot will exist only if there is a seed, no shoot can be seen without any seed.

6.      अतिपरिचयादवज्ञा इति यद्वाक्यं मृषैव तद्भाति ।

अतिपरिचितेऽप्यनादौ संसारेऽस्मिन् न जायतेऽवज्ञा ॥

atiparicayadavadnya iti yadvakyam mrushaiva tadbhati |

atiparicitepyanadau samsaresmin na jayatevadnya ||

‘There is disgrace due to continuous contact’ this saying is absolutely false. Is anyone bored with this continuous life in this world?

7.      आयुषः क्षण एकोऽपि सर्वरत्नैर्न लभ्यते ।

नीयते तद्वृथा येन प्रमादी सुमहानसौ ॥

ayushah kshana ekopi sarvaratnairna labhyate |

niyate tadvrutha yena pramadi sumahanasau ||

One cannot buy a single moment of life even when weighed against the entire quantity of valuable jewels; hence what can we call a person who wastes such a valuable life?

Polity

1.      प्रजानां विनयाधानाद्रक्षणाभ्दरणादपि ।
स पिता; पितरस्तासां केवलं जन्महेतवः ॥

prajanam vinayadhanadrakshanadbharanadapi |

sa pita pitarastasam kevalam janmahetavah ||

A king who provides education, protection and nourishment to his subjects is the father of the subject in real sense; their biological fathers are just a cause for their birth.

2.      शनैः शनैश्च यो राज्यमुपभुङ्क्ते यथाबलम् ।

रसायनमिव प्राज्ञः स पुष्टिं परमां व्रजेत् ॥

shanaih shanaishca yo rajyamupabhunkte yathabalam |

rasayanamiva pradnyah sa pushtim paramam vrajet ||

Medicines of Ayurveda are very strong hence these should be used in proper measurement. Similarly a king who rules his kingdom with the right measure of governance flourishes fast in this world.

3.      किं तस्य तपसा राज्ञः किं च तस्याध्वरैरपि ।

सुपालितप्रजो यः स्यात् सर्वधर्मविदेव सः ॥

kim tasya tapasa radnyah kim ca tasyadhvarairapi |

supalitaprajo yah syat sarvadharmavideva sah ||

That King is the best knower of the dharma (virtuousness) who protects his subject in the best way. If this is the case then what is the need for penance or sacrifice to such a King?

4.      षट्कर्णो भिद्यते मन्त्रः चतुष्कर्णः स्थिरो भवेत् ।

द्विकर्णस्य तु मन्त्रस्य ब्रह्माऽपि अन्तं न गच्छति ॥

shatkarno bhidyate mantrah catushkarnah sthiro bhavet |

dvikarnasya tu mantrasya brahmapi antam na gacchati ||

A secret known to six ears (three people) gets leaked very easily. The same known to four ears (two people) becomes stable between them. But, even for lord Brahma, it is very difficult to know about a secret known only to two ears (of an individual).

5.      अग्निशेषं ऋणशेषं शत्रुशेषं तथैव च ।

पुनः पुनः प्रवर्धेत तस्मात् शेषं न कारयेत् ॥

Agnishesham runashesham shatrushesham tathaiva ca |

Punah punah pravardheta tasmat shesham na karayet ||

Fire, loan and enemy, even if they remain in small traces will grow again. Hence they should be done away with completely.

6.      आ कीर्तिः पालनं ब्राह्मणानां दानं भोगो मित्रसंरक्षणं च।

येषामेते षड्गुणा न प्रवृत्ताः कोर्थस्तेषां पार्थिवोपाश्रयेण।।

A kirtih palanam brahmananam danam bhogo mitrasamrakshanam ca |

Yeshamete shadguna na pravruttah korthastesham parthivopashrayena ||

What is the use of these men becoming king’s servants who do not possess the six qualities, viz. the power to command, fame, the protection of Brahmins, charity, the enjoyment of pleasures and the protection of friends?

7.      यथा ह्यनुदका नद्यो यथा वाप्यतृणं वनम् ।

अगोपाला यथा गावस्तथा राष्ट्रमराजकम् ॥

yatha hyanudaka nadyo yatha vapyatrunam vanam |

agopala yatha gavastatha rashtramarajakam ||

A nation without a king is like a river without water, forest without grass and cows without cowherds.

8.      नृपं च नराणां केवलं तुल्यमूर्तिता ।

आधिक्यं तु क्षमा धैर्यम् आशा दानं पराक्रमः ॥

nrupanam ca naranam ca kevalam tulyamurtita |

adhikyam tu kshama dhairyam asha danam parakramah ||

The king and the commoner are the same. But the king practises more forgiveness, valour, and vigour.

Puzzle

रामाभिषेके जलमाहरत्या हस्ताच्चुतो हेमघटो युवत्याः ।

सोपानमार्गेण करोति शब्दं ठंठंठठंठंठठठंठठंठः ॥

ramabhisheke jalamaharatya hastaccyuto hemaghato yuvatyah |

sopanamargena karoti shabdam thamthamthathamthamthathathamthathamthah ||

The last stanza of this puzzle ‘ठंठंठठंठंठठठंठठंठः’ was given to poets to make an instant composition. A certain poet composed a verse as,

A golden pot which had slipped from the hands of a young maiden made a sound ‘tham tham tha tham tham tha tha tham tha tham thah’ as it rolled down the steps.

स्वयं महेशस्तनयो गणेशः सखा धनेशः श्वशुरो नगेशः ।

तथापि भिक्षाटनमेव शंम्भोर्बलीयसी केवलमीश्वरेच्छा ॥

swayam maheshastanayo ganeshah sakha dhaneshah shvashuro nageshah |

tathapi bhikshatanameva shambhorbaliyasi kevalamishwareccha ||

Lord Shiva himself is Mahesha (one of the three great gods), his son is Ganesha (lord of the troupes), his friend is Dhanesha (lord Kubera, a god of treasure) and his father in law is Nagesha (lord of the mountains); but still his wandering for alms is nothing but just a wish of destiny.

चलत्तरङ्गरङ्गायां गङ्गायां प्रतिबिम्बितम् ।

सचन्द्रं शोभतेऽत्यन्तं शतचन्द्रं नभस्तलम् ।

calattarangarangayam gangayam pratibimbitam |

sacandram shobhatetyantam shatacandram nabhastalam ||

‘Hundred moons in the sky’ this statement is not possible in the real world. But this last segment was given to compose a meaningful poetry in a competition. A poet created beautiful lines thus,

When the moon gets reflected in the soft waves of the river Ganga, then one can see beauty comparable to seeing a hundred moons in the sky.

भारतं चेक्षुदण्डं च कलानाथं च वर्णय ।

कालिदासः कविर्ब्रूते प्रतिपर्वरसावहम् ।।

bharatam cekshudandam ca kalanatham ca varnaya |

kalidasah kavirbrute pratiparvarasavaham ||

Describe Mahabharata, sugarcane and moon in one word. When asked thus by King Bhoja, Kalidasa replied, ‘pratiparvarasaprada’. Each parva i.e. each section of Mahabharata has poetic enjoyment, each part between two joints of sugarcane has juice and moon is auspicious during each period of parva.

एकोना विंशतिः स्त्रीणां स्नानार्थं सरयूं गता ।

विंशति पुनरायाता एको व्याघ्रेण भक्षितः ॥

ekona vimshati strinam snanartham sarayum gata |

vimshati punarayata eko vyaghrena bhakshitah ||

Nineteen women went to River Sarayu for bath; out of which twenty came back and one man was eaten by a tiger.

This sentence is a play on words. Here the meaning of the word ekona should be taken as eko na (one man). Now the translation is,

One man and twenty women went to Sarayu River for a bath; out of which twenty women came back and one man was eaten by a tiger.

असारे खलु संसारे सारं श्वशुरमन्दिरम् ।

हरो हिमालये शेते हरिः शेते महोदधौ ॥

Asare khalu samsare saram shvashuramandiram |

Haro himalaye shete harih shete mahodadhau ||

In this meaningless life, the home of the father in law is the best place to stay (as all the wishes of the son in law are fulfilled there), hence lord Shiva stays in Himalaya (it is his father in law’s place as Parvati is the daughter of Himalaya) and lord Vishnu stays in the great ocean (as Lakshmi is the daughter of the great ocean).

Quality

गुणा गुणज्ञेषु गुणा भवन्ति

ते निर्गुणं प्राप्य भवन्ति दोषाः।

आस्वद्यतोयाः प्रभवन्ति नद्यः

समुद्रमासाद्य भवन्त्यपेयाः॥

Guna gunadnyeshu guna bhavanti

Te nirgunam prapya bhavanti doshaha|

Aswadyatoyaha prabhavanti nadyaha

samudramasadya bhavantyapeyaha||

Qualities remain as qualities only when they are with meritorious people. But they turn into vices when they come in contact with people devoid of merits. The rivers flow with sweet water but when they reach the ocean they become undrinkable.

गुणाः कुर्वन्ति दूतत्वं दूरेऽपि वसतां सताम्।

केतकीगन्धमाघ्राय स्वयमायान्ति षट्पदाः॥

Gunaha kurvanti dutatvam  durepi vasatam satam|

Ketakigandhamaghraya svayamanti shatpadaha||

Qualities of virtuous people speak for them. Smelling the fragrance of the Pandanus flower, bees get attracted on their own.

Samasyapurti

प्रहरितोऽपि मार्जारस्तमाखुं नैव मुञ्चति।

तथैव बोधितो मूर्खस्तमाखुं नैव मुञ्चति॥

Praharitopi marjarastamaakhum naiva muncati |

Tathaiva bodhito moorkhastamakhum naiva muncati||

A cat never stops chewing mouse even though she is hit. Similarly an ignorant person never stops chewing tobacco even though he is made to understand.

चलत्तरङ्गरङ्गायां गङ्गायां प्रतिबिम्बितम्।

सचन्द्रं शोभतेऽत्यन्तं शतचन्द्रं नभस्तलम्॥

Chalattarangarangayam gangayam pratibimbitam |

Sachandram shobhatetyantam shatachandram nabhastalam||

When the moon is mirrored on the tremulous waves of River Ganga, it seems as beautiful as hundred moons in the sky.

कस्तुरी जायते कस्माद् को हन्ति करीणां शतम्।

किं कुर्यात् कातरो युद्धे मृगात् सिंहः पलायते॥

Kasturi jayate kasmad ko hanti karinam shatam|

Kim kuryat kataro yuddhe mrugat simhah palayate||

Where does musk come from? Who kills hundreds of elephants? What does the cowardly person do in the battle?

The answers are as follows: deer, lion, runs away.

अन्नवस्त्रसुवर्णानि रत्नानि विविधानि च।

ब्राह्मणेभ्यो नदीतीरे ददाति व्रज सत्वरम्॥

Annavastrasuvarnani ratnani vividhani cha|

Brahmanebhyo naditire dadati vraja satvaram||

…is giving food, clothes, gold and various gems to Brahmins on the bank of the river. Go quickly.

(The subject is hidden in the verse itself. The word Brahmnebhyah should be taken as Brahmana + Ibhyah (ब्राह्मण+इभ्यः). The word Ibhyah means rich man. This is the subject. Therefore the verse means – “O Brahmin! A rich man is giving food, clothes, gold and various gems on the bank of the river. Go quickly.”)

Truth

अश्वमेधं सहस्रं च सत्यं च तुलया धृतम्।

अश्वमेधसहस्रेभ्यः सत्यमेवातिरिच्यते॥

Ashvamedham sahasram cha satyam tulaya dhrutam|

Ashvanedhasahasrebhyah satyamevatirichyate ||

If one thousand ashwamed (अश्वमेध) sacrifices and truth are gauged by a pair of scales, a pan of truth is more influential than a pan of thousand ashwamedhs (अश्वमेधs).

नास्ति सत्यसमो धर्मः न सत्याद् विद्यते परम् ।

न हि तीव्रतरं किंचिद् अनृताद् इह विद्यते ॥

nasti satyasamo dharmah na satyad vidyate param |

na hi tivrataram kimcid anrutad iha vidyate ||

There is no other righteousness than truth, there is no other better thing in this world than truth and there is no other sharp thing than truth.

न हि प्रतिज्ञां कुर्वन्ति वितथां सत्यवादिनः।

लक्षणं हि महत्त्वस्य प्रतिज्ञापरिपलनम्॥

Na hi pratijnyam kurvanti vitatham satyavadinah |

Lakshanam hi mahattvasya pratijnyaparipalanam ||

Truthful people never break their vow. Keeping one’s word is a sign of greatness.

Virtues

कुसुमं वर्णसम्पन्नं गन्धहीनं न शोभते ।

न शोभते क्रियाहीनं मधुरं वचनं तथा ॥

kusumam varnasampannam gandhahinam na shobhate |

na shobhate kriyahinam madhuram vacanam tatha ||

A flower does not look beautiful if it has only colour and no fragrance. Similarly sweet words without matching action do not look good in this world.

ज्येष्ठत्वं जन्मना नैव गुणैर्ज्येष्ठत्वमुच्यते ।

गुणात् गुरुत्वमायाति दुग्धं दधि घृतं क्रमात् ॥

Jyeshthatvam janmana naiva gunaitjyeshthatvamucyate |

Gunat gurutvamayati dugdham dadhi ghrutam kramat ||

Greatness is not decided by birth but it is decided by qualities of a person.
Though by birth milk is older than curd and curd than ghee; ghee, curd and milk is the conventional order based on the superiority of their qualities.

Virtuous people

विप्रियमप्याकर्ण्य ब्रूते प्रियमेव सर्वदा सुजनः।

क्षारं पिबति पयोधेर्वर्षत्यम्भोधरो मधुरम्भः॥

Vipriyamapyakarnya brute priyameva sarvada sujanah |

Ksharam pibati payodhervarshatyambhodharo mdhurambhah ||

A virtuous person always speaks well even though he has listened to bitter words. The Cloud drinks the salt water of the ocean, yet showers pure water.

उदयति यदि भानुः पश्चिमे दिग्विभागे प्रचलति यदि मेरुः शीततां याति वह्निः।

विकसति यदि पद्मं पर्वताग्रे शिलायां न भवति पुनरुक्तं भाषितं सज्जनानाम्॥

Udayati yadi bhanuh pashchime digvibhage Prachalati yadi meruh shitatam yati vahnihi|

Vikasati yadi padmam parvatagre shilayam Na bhavati punaruktambhashitam sajjananam||

Virtuous people never go back on their word, even if the sun were to rise in the west, the mountain Meru would move, fire would turn cold or the lotus would bloom on a rocky mountain.

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