Myth is a commonly held belief that is untrue. Mythology refers to stories of ancient legends and heroes and the study of such stories. Mythologies are expected to have veiled meanings.

The Sanskrit equivalent of myth is Purana, which interestingly means that which was old and is relevant now. (Pura + Navam)

There are many examples in Hindu mythology which contain very interesting science in and Cosmology and Evolution. However, unfortunately, such sciences had been unearthed and recognized in the ancient texts only after the rediscovery in the modern west.

Mythological stories contain a series of assertions, some of which have now been discovered as science. As yet, the unverified truth could be postulated for future research and validation, which would go beyond merely establishing the superior wisdom of the civilization.

Age of Brahma

Kasthah pancadasakhyata nimesa munisattama I

Kasthastrimsat kala tastu trirnsanmauhurtiko vidhih II

Tavatsankhyairahoratrarn muhurtairmanusarn srnrtam I

Ahoratrani tavanti masah paksadvayatmakah II

Taid sadbhirayanarn varsarn dvayeSyane daksinottare I

Divyairvarsasahasraistu krtatretadisarnjfutam II

Caturyugarn dvadasabhistadvibhagarn nibodha me I

Divyabdanarn sahasrani yugesvahu puravidah II

Krtarn treta dvapararn ca kaliscaiva caturyugam

Procyate tat sahasranca brahrnano divasarn mune II

Translated as

15 twinkles of the eye = 1 kashta

30 kashta = 1 kala

30 kalas = 1 muhurta

30 muhurtas = 1 day and night

30 day and nights = 1 month

6 months = 1 ayana

2 ayanas = 1 year

12,000 divine years = 4 yugas – krita, treta, dvapara  and kali = 1 day of Brahma.


Visnu-purana, Book 1, Chapter 3, Slokah 8-11 & 15, Vyasa (Post-Vedic period)


1 divine year = 360 human years =>12,000 divine years = 43, 20,000 human years = 1 day of Brahma, the creator of this Universe.

Western Reference

The big bang is the biggest budget universe ever, with mind-boggling numbers to dazzle us – a technique pioneered by 5th century AD Indian cosmologists, the first to estimate the age of the earth at more than 4 billion years.


Tasrnadva etasmadatmana akasah sambhutah I

Akasadvayuh I Vayoragnih I Agnerapah

Adbhyah prthivi I Prthivya osadhayah I

Osadhibhyo.Snnam I Annat purusah II

Translated as – From that Atman (Supreme soul) space came into being, from space wind, from wind fire, from fire water, from water earth, from earth plants, from plants food, from food man (came into being).


Yajur-veda, Taittirlyopanisad, Brahmananda-valli, Anuvakah 1 (Vedic period).


  1. The above hierarchy is well appreciated when one takes into consideration the nature of the 5 elements, each inheriting the characteristics of its parent-element, as illustrated below:

Elements and Attributes

Elements      Attributes

1.   Space       sound

2.   Wind         sound        +      touch

3.   Fire           sound        +      touch         +      form

4.   Water        sound        +      touch         +      form + taste

5.   Earth         sound        +     touch         +       form +   taste + smell

2.   The commonality of fundamental thoughts across disciplines is well defined in the Indian Knowledge System. For instance, there is a clear-cut classification of creatures as living and moving. At primary level, any being which possesses the five senses as brought out beautifully in a conversation between Bhardwaja and Bhrigu,  as mentioned in the Hindu Puranas.

  • Lost Discoveries, Dick Teresi, page 158.


Matsyah kiirmo varahasca nrsimho Stha

vamanah I

Ramo ramasca ramasca krsnah kalkI ca te

dasa II

Translated as – The ten (Avataras of Lord Vishnu) are Matsya (the fish), Kurma (the tortoise), Varaha (the boar), Narasimha (the man-lion), Vamana (the dwarf), Parashurama (the axe- wielder), Rama (the king Rama) , Balarama (the plough-wielder), Krishna (the flute- player) and Kalki (the evil-destroyer).


Inscription, Sankaranarayana temple, Mahabalipuram (5th century AD)


The first 6 incarnations represent physical evolution on to the human form

  •  Fish                à   Water  dwelling
  • Tortoise         à    Amphibian
  • Boar          à    Animal     Land
  • Narasimha     à   Man – Animal
  • Vamana           à   Dwarf
  • Parashurama    à   Fully grown man

The 7th to 9th avatars deal with the social and cultural evolution of man. The evolution is evidenced by the weapons that these incarnations carry even without reference to the story.

6th – Parashurama—–Axe

Though having evolved physically, Parashurama through his life was seized by an uncontrolled anger (at the death of his mother) and his life was spent in persecuting kings. Only physically the form has become human.

7th– Rama—–Bow

Rama was the quintessential evolved human-being, who had completely overcome animal-like passions.

8th – Balarama——Plough—àAgriculture

The plough implies the completion of progress from being hunter gatherers to settled agriculture, with cultivated produce meeting most or all food needs.

9th – Krishna—–Flute—àFine Art

Fine Arts come about and flourish when there is peace and from settled agriculture and trade.

The 10th – Kalki is a warning about the destruction the human race is capable of bringing upon itself.

Notes on Cosmology

Scientific Rigor

Cosmology is the study of the universe as a whole, its history and origin. It is usually (but not always) based on astronomy, along with religious and social beliefs. Because it is so intertwined with general societal beliefs and attitudes, cosmology is a clue to the collective psychology of a civilization.

Time – the Indian Paradigm

The defining differentiation in the Indian thinking in regard to time and cosmology is that universe/life is in cycles and is not linear.